Present Perfect

*Structure:

Positive Subject + have/has + verb (past participle)
Negative Subject + have not (haven’t)/ has not (hasn’t) + verb (p.p)
Question Have/ Has + subject + verb (p.p)…?

 Ex:

I have lived in New York for 10 years.

She hasn’t written any letters so far.

Have you ever come to Hawaii?

*Use:

We use present perfect tense to talk about:

experience or the things that happened in the past when the time isn’t known or isn’t supposed to be mentioned.

 

I’ve worked in 10 different countries. 

Have you ever been to Australia?

She’s won many awards for her books.

I have already bought this CD.

 things that are unfinished – unfinished states and unfinished time periods (The present perfect is acting as a bridge between the past and the present) I’ve known him since I was 11. (I met him when I was 11. I still know him now.)

We’ve lived here since I was a boy.

She’s been to the cinema three times this week. (This week isn’t finished yet-she may go to the cinema again).

 the present result of a past action John has broken his leg and he can’t go on holiday.  
 things that just happen We have just come back from London.

*We normally use adverbs or words such as just, recently, lately, already, never, ever, (not) yet, before, for, since, so far, until now, up to now, up to present, It’s the first/ second/… time…, etc. with present perfect tense: It’s the first time I have tried riding the bike.

*Exercise:

  1. Read the situations and write sentences. Choose one of the following:

  arrive   break  go up  grow  improve  lose

a. Mike is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key.

b. Margaret can’t walk and her leg is in plaster. She —

c. Maria’s English wasn’t very good. Now it is much better. —

d. Tim didn’t have a beard last month. Now he has a beard. —

e. This morning I was expecting a letter. Now I have it. —

f. Last week the bus fare was 80 pence. Now it is 90. —

KEY

b. She has broken her leg./She’s broken …

c. Her English has improved./It has improved./It’s improved.

d. He has grown a beard./He’s grown …

e. The letter has arrived./It has arrived./It’s arrived.

f. The bus fare has gone up./It has gone up./It’s gone up.

  1. Complete Bs sentences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet (as shown).

a. A: Would you like something to eat?

  B: No, thanks. I’ve just had lunch. (just/have)

b. A: Do you know where Julia is?

B: Yes, I — her. (just/see)

c. A: What time is David leaving?

B: He — (already/leave)

d. A: What’s in the newspaper today?

B: I don’t know. I — (not/read/yet)

e. A: Is Ann coming to the cinema with us?

B: No, she — the film. (already/see)

f. A: Are your friends here yet?

B: Yes, they — (just/arrive)

g. A: What does Tim think about your plan?

B: I — (not/tell/yet)

KEY

b. ‘ve just seen/have just seen

c. ‘s already left/has already left

d. haven’t read it yet

e. ‘s already seen has already seen

f. ‘ve just arrived have just arrived

g. haven’t told him yet

  1. Put in “been” or “gone”.

a. Jim is on holiday. He’s gone to Italy.

b. Hello! I’ve just — to the shops. I’ve bought lots of things.

c. Alice isn’t here at the moment. She’s — to the shop to get a newspaper.

d. Tom has — out. He’ll be back in about an hour.

e. ‘Are you going to the bank?’ ‘No, I’ve already — to the bank.’

KEY

b. been

c. gone

d. gone

e. been

  1. You are asking somebody questions about things he or she has done. Make questions from the words in brackets.

a. (ever/ride/horse?)

  Have you ever ridden a horse?

b. (ever/be/California?)

c. (ever/run/marathon?)

d. (ever/speak/famous person?)

e. (always/live/in this town?)

f. (most beautiful place/ever/visit?) What

KEY

b. Have you ever been to California?

c. Have you ever run a marathon?

d. Have you ever spoken to a famous person?

e. Have you always lived in this town?

f. What’s the most beautiful place you’ve ever visited?

  1. Complete Bs answers. Some sentences are positive and some negative. Use a verb from this list:

  be  be  cat  happen  have  meet  play  read  see  see  try

  a. A: What’s George’s sister like?

  B: I’ve no idea. I’ve never met her.

b. A: How is Amy these days?

B: I don’t know. I — her recently.

c. A: Are you hungry?

B: Yes. I — much today.

d. A: Can you play chess?

B: Yes, but — for ages.

e. A: Did you enjoy your holiday?

B: Yes, it’s the best holiday — for a long time.

f. A: What’s that book like?

B: I don’t know —

g. A: Is Brussels an interesting place?

B: I’ve no idea — there.

h. A: Mike was late for work again today.

B: Again? He — every day this week.

i. A: Do you like caviar?

B: I don’t know —

j. A: The car broke down again yesterday.

B: Not again! That’s the second time — this week.

k. A: Who’s that woman by the door?

B: I don’t know — before.

KEY

b. haven’t seen

c. haven’t eaten

d. I haven’t played (it)

e. I’ve had/I have had

f. I haven’t read

g. I’ve never been/I haven’t been

h. has been late/’s been late

i. I’ve never tried/I have never tried/I’ve never eaten

j. it’s happened/it has happened that’s happened/that has happened

k. I’ve never seen her/I haven’t seen her

 

The information we used is collected from different sources on the Internet and in English coursebooks.

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